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GEOPHYSICS, complex sciences, physical methods of investigating the structure of the Earth. Geophysics in the broadest sense is studying the physics of solid Earth (Earth's crust, mantle, liquid and solid external internal kernel), the physics of the oceans, land surface water (lakes, rivers, ice) and groundwater, as well as the physics of the atmosphere (meteorology, climatology, Aeronomy) . 

This article is considered extremely solid Earth physics, which are the main sections of seismology, geodesy, gravimetry, geomagnetizm, BOTH GEOELECTRICS, Geothermal, rheology, physics of minerals and rocks. Applied Geophysics develops methods and the theory of geophysical surveys and geophysical exploration, mainly with a view to finding mineral deposits (see GEOFIZICHESKAYA EXPLORATION). The marine geophysics conducts research in seas and oceans. 

Geophysics uses data from other sciences, mainly physics and geology as well as mathematics, astronomy, crystallography, geochemistry. A large influence on the development of geophysics have the results of space research and development of the theory of tectonic plates. See also LAND. 

Seismology studying earthquakes, their mechanisms and consequences, the spread of seismic waves, as well as all types of crustal movements, which are recorded on seismographs land and at the bottom of the oceans and seas. The most active earthquake zones observed in the weakened along the borders of tectonic plates. In doing so, brought three types of seismic waves: longitudinal (P), transverse (S) and surface (Love and Rayleigh waves). Strong earthquake may also initiate free variations across the Earth. 

Election seismically safe places for the construction of facilities is projected earthquake engineering seismology. The real methodology for accurate prediction of earthquakes time and place does not exist yet. It is known that the most powerful earthquake accompany the process of subduction (poddviga) in the deep gutters or movement to transform faults. This makes it possible to predict areas of possible earthquakes. Information about the expected jolting force is essential to determine possible effects on seismic intensity of such facilities as nuclear reactors, dams, bridges and buildings.